Club Goods

These include for example free software such as the Linux computer operating system, or the Wikipedia (collective intelligence, open content). In this form of Commons are based on information as a resource, the Commons problem will not be wearing: information not lose value if they are used more frequently. Under a common good, quasi collective goods or impure public goods you don’t understand its use in the WirtschaftswissenschaftenGuter, or VIH only at disproportionate time and effort and use there is rivalry between the users. Examples of common goods are crowded public streets or fish stocks in a body of water with free access overfishing. (A valuable related resource: Barchester). The term is derived from the Commons, a Community farming.

Commons but not necessarily are common goods. Access to a Commons is open and is not provided for a sustainable use, so can a Commons are to the common good and lead to the tragedy of the Commons. -Public good: Dailey, Wikipedia – Commons good: inner-city street, power grid expansion – Club goods: pay TV, gym – private goods: ice cream, home the tragedy of the anti-Commons describes the dilemma in which the number of rights holders makes it impossible achieving a socially desirable result. Patents are often cited as an example of the tragedy of the anti-Commons, because a Patent owner exclusive rights over the use of the patented technology has. If now the manufacture of a given product involves the use of many techniques and components which have been patented by different people or companies, it can be very difficult to negotiate at the same time appropriate agreements with all patent owners. This can cause that someone would have to pay so many license fees that it would too expensive or too risky to produce the desired product. As a result a product, which would combine many innovations and would be very much in demand, would not manufactured, only because the cost of necessary patents would be too high.